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In the 1930s, with the rise of the Third Reich, thousands of European intellectuals sought refuge in the United States. Through the tireless efforts of Alvin Johnson, director of the New School for Social Research, nearly two hundred of these scholars came to be affiliated with the University in Exile, later known as the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science. This book presents an intellectual history of that remarkable group of social and political scientists, documenting their experiences and their influence on both European and American thought. Johnson was one of the first to recognize the need for action to prevent Hitler’s destruction of the German intellectual tradition. He sought out many of the best European scholars of the day and brought them to the newly created University in Exile in New York. There, the refugees framed as intellectual problems the social and political experiences that had so disrupted their lives and careers. They examined the cultural roots of fascism, the bureaucratization of Western societies, and the prerequisites for a historically and morally informed social science. In the field of economics, the exiles developed theoretical concepts and models that came to be instrumental in the formation of New Deal policies and that remain relevant today.

By Claus-Dieter Krohn – 1987 Campus-Verlag

Translated by Rita and Robert Kimber – 1993 The University of Massachusetts Press



Traces the development of the New School from its founding in 1918 to the present.  

By Peter M. Rutkoff & Willam B. Scott – 1986 The Free Press.



Social Research: An International Quarterly – Volume 84, No. 4, Winter 2017

“Refugee Scholarship: The Cross-Fertilization of Culture”

Harald Hagemann and William Milberg, Guest Coeditors

Arien Mack, Journal Editor