Paulina Ramirez is a lecturer in International Business and Innovation at Birmingham Business School. Paulina’s research focuses on the relationship between national and regional innovation and business systems and global innovation networks. She is particularly interested in how national and regional institutions shape knowledge flows within global R&D networks and how this affects the upgrading capabilities of firms. She has worked on a number of research projects looking at the outsourcing and offshoring of R&D activities in the pharmaceutical industry; the impact of FDI on the science and technology system of the Republic of Ireland; as well as work on the role on national institutions in the Chilean salmon-farming global value chain. Paulina is also interested in how national institutional systems (e.g. corporate governance, science and technology systems) shape the emergence of new areas of science and technology.