Alexandre Afonso is Assistant Professor at the University of Leiden, Netherlands. He works on welfare state and labour market reforms, and the political economy of labour migration. His work has been published in the Socio-Economic Review, Journal of European Public Policy, European Political Science Review, Governance, Comparative European Politics and other outlets. His book “Social Concertation in Times of Austerity” was published by Amsterdam University Press in 2013. He has written for the Washington Post, CNN and Jacobin Magazine.